I recently re-installed the OS on my Laptop and immediately had an issue connecting to it remotely using my Microsoft Account credentials. I knew this worked before and I was not getting any intelligent errors regarding the failure to connect.
After doing the normal google search and reading over multiple articles and ways others have tried to fix this I stumbled across an obscure post that told me to login into Windows at least once with your MS Account password instead of the standard PIN or Windows Hello authentication that Windows 10 uses as default.
After logging in one time with my MS Account password, voila, the RDP connection started working. Hopefully this helps anyone else out there that is having this issue.